Efficacy of antenatal Magnesium Sulfate for Neuroprotection
The survival of preterm infants has improved drastically. In addition to a significant contribution to neonatal mortality, the impact of prematurity among survivors may continue through life impairing long-term physical life through Neuro-disability and increased risk of cerebral palsy. Maternal administration of magnesium sulfate prior to impending preterm birth is an effective strategy to reduce neuromorbidity.

The aim was to investigate the effectiveness of antenatal magnesium sulfate for neuroprotection in preterm infants between 26 and 34 weeks in preventing early neonatal morbidity and mortality. The secondary objective was to assess any adverse events with the use of magnesium sulfate on the mother and neonate.

This was a prospective observational comparative study for 2 years of 100 pregnant women who gave preterm births. Fifty infants each were born to mothers who were either not given MgSO4 (Group 1) or given 4gm intravenous loading dose MgSO4 (Group 2), preferably 4 h prior to preterm birth.

- Among all the preterm in the study, 81% delivered between 30 and 34 weeks.

- There was no significant difference in terms of maternal mortality or serious morbidity including postpartum hemorrhage, caesarian section rates, or length of hospital stay among women receiving MgSO4 versus no MgSO4.

- Mild maternal side effects secondary to magnesium sulfate were experienced in 8% of cases.

- There were no significant differences between both groups for low 5 min APGAR, need for NICU admission, neonatal convulsions, hyperbilirubinemia, necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia, and septicemia.

- There was a trend toward reduced risk in the magnesium sulfate group for the need for mechanical ventilation and ongoing respiratory support, intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal hypotension, hypothermia, length of NICU stay.

- IVH was less frequent and less severe in babies exposed to antenatal MgSO4 as compared to the non-MgSO4 group. Neonatal morbidities were more when antenatal MgSO4 was given less than 4 h from delivery.

In particular, MgSO4 is a safe drug to use in antenatal women at risk for impending preterm. Antenatal magnesium sulfate given to women in established preterm labor conferred a significant neuroprotective advantage to the neonate. MgSO4 also has a protective effect on the need for invasive ventilatory support in preterm infants.

The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India
Source: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13224-021-01531-9