Efficiency of tooth bleaching agent on staining and discolor
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Surface staining and deeper discoloration characteristics of peroxide-based bleaching agents in the nicotine stain in dental enamel model were evaluated in the present study. Nicotine stained dental enamel fragments were prepared and were subjected to the bleaching ingredients for a fixed treatment time of 30 min. The bleaching agents were composed of limonene, coconut diethanolamide, and carbamide peroxide served as a solvent, nonionic surfactant, and oxidizer, respectively. Optical analysis was carried out considering color stability via colorimeter and UV-Vis spectrometer.

The experimental results have shown that nicotine-stained dental enamel model exhibits significant discoloration values when exposed to the prepared tooth bleaching agents. The limonene, coconut diethanolamide, and carbamide peroxide seemed to be more discoloration active. Considering the bleaching materials, carbamide peroxide=5% could have less discoloration properties as compared with the composites with different types of tooth bleaching agent. Reduction of nicotine content resulted in increased color stability. All bleaching formulations improved the tooth color, however, carbamide peroxide 15% produced the most prominent color change as compared with 5 and 10% carbamide peroxide, and whiteness enhancement was higher than the other two. The 1.0% limonene +20% coconut diethanolamide +10% carbamide peroxide bleaching formulation had a higher bleaching effect in a similar amount of treatment time and was both highly safe and effective.

Upon application of the tooth-bleaching agent, carbamide peroxide breaks down into free radicals. It attaches to the stained portion of the dental enamel model having chromophore bonds. Free radicals tend to break the double chromophore bonds into single bonds. The single bonded C-atom produces the colorless molecules bringing out the natural tooth whiteness. Limonene, the organic soluble element present in the tooth bleaching agents, is able to combine with the peroxide-based bleaching agent, making it insoluble and unable to exert its re-mineralizing property, enhancing the performance of hydrogen peroxide.

Source: https://bmcoralhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12903-020-01207-2
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