Epidemiology of Giant cell arteritis across time and space,
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Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a form of large vessel vasculitis that affects people over the age of 50. The geographic and temporal distribution of GCA occurrence, prevalence, and mortality were investigated in this meta-analysis.

A systematic review was conducted using EMBASE, Scopus, and PubMed. Studies were included if they reported at least 50 or more GCA patients and defined the location and time frame. Articles on mortality were included and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was extracted where possible. Linear regression was used to explore correlations between latitude and incidence, prevalence, and mortality.

Results:
--Of the 3569 citations identified, 107 were included.

--The pooled incidence of GCA was 10.00 cases per 100,000 people over 50 years old.

--This incidence was highest in Scandinavia 21.57, followed by North and South America 10.89, Europe 7.26, and Oceania 7.85.

--Pooled prevalence was 51.74 cases per 100,000 people over age 50.

--Annual mortality was 20.44 deaths/1000. Mortality generally decreased over the years of publication.

--Latitude correlated significantly with incidence, but not with prevalence, or mortality.

GCA incidence, in particular, varies nearly threefold between regions and is highest in Scandinavia, but not by much. Over time, mortality could be improving. Latitude influences the distribution of some autoimmune conditions, however, not GCA.

Source: https://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13075-021-02450-w
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