Etiology, Clinical Manifestations and Microbiological Profil
Infections developing in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices including permanent pacemakers (PMs), implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices (CRT) are causing considerable clinical problems. Lead dependent infective endocarditis (LDIE) is considered the most serious complication. LDIE symptoms are similar to clinical features of respiratory track infective disease and so some diagnostic difficulties may arise. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections as reported by the world registries range between 0.13% and 19.9% for PMs and 0.8% for ICDs and roughly 10% to 25% of these patients develop LDIE...