Etiology and Outcome of Non-Immune Hydrops Fetalis in Relati
A Study was conducted to determine the etiology and outcome of non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) according to gestational age at diagnosis and intrauterine treatment. Medical records and ultrasonographic images were reviewed. The etiology, outcome, and intrauterine treatment were assessed.

Results:
-- The etiology was determined in 100 cases, and Hb Bart’s disease was the most common.

--Two cases each of homozygous Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) and hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) were found. NIHF diagnosed in early gestation (less than 24 weeks) had a higher rate of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal demise.

--Intrauterine treatment was given in 18 cases, and 50% had successful live births.

Conclusively, Hb Bart's disease was found to be the leading cause of NIHF. SAO and Hb CS were found to be linked to hydrops. NIHF was linked to chromosomal abnormalities and fetal death in women who were less than 24 weeks pregnant.

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41372-021-01202-7
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