Fat embolism syndrome: A comprehensive review and update
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a life-threatening situation, which warrants greater emphasis than it receives in the literature. FE occurs following various medical and surgical conditions leading to a cascade of systemic inflammatory process affecting multiple organs of the body, which may lead to end-organ failure.

It has high mortality and morbidity. Despite advancement in science and technology, diagnosis of this fatal syndrome is mainly based on clinical symptoms and signs and no major definitive diagnostic tool and treatment method is available.

At present, treatment of this disastrous medical condition is only supportive. In this review, published in the Journal of Orthopaedics and Allied Sciences, the authors summarize the incidence, etiology, pathophysiology, and management of FES.

Conditions associated with FE:

1. Trauma related

• Long-bone fractures
• Pelvic fractures
• Fractures of other marrow-containing bones
• Orthopedic procedures
• Soft-tissue injuries (e.g., chest compression with or
without rib fractures)
• Burns
• Liposuction
• Bone marrow harvesting and transplant

2. Nontrauma related

• Pancreatitis
• Diabetes mellitus
• Osteomyelitis and panniculitis
• Bone tumor lyses
• Steroid therapy
• Sickle cell hemoglobinopathies
• Alcoholic (fatty) liver disease
• Lipid fusion
• Cyclosporine A solvent.

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