Females with Diabetes Mellitus Increased the Incidence of Pr
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a multifactorial disorder caused by hormone and autonomic imbalance. In our study, hyperglycemia-induced insulin secretion increased progesterone secretion and progressive autonomic imbalance. A retrospective cohort study of young females, data retrieved from the Insurance Research Database. Patients who were DM-free females were fourfold matched to the control group by age and disease index date. The ICD-9-CM disease code of 625.4 identified the incidence of PMS followed by the index date as events. The possible risk factors associated with PMS were detected with a Cox proportional regression. DM was a significant risk factor for PMS incidence with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.683 (95% confidence interval: 1.104–2.124, p < 0.001) in females after adjusting for age, other comorbidities, season, and urbanization status of patients, and the hospital status of visiting. This study noted an association between DM and PMS in female patients. Healthcare providers and female patients with DM must be aware of possible complications of PMS, aggressive glycemic control, decreased hyperglycemia, and autonomic dysfunction to prevent this bothersome disorder.

Source: https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/12/6/777