Five diseases attack language areas in brain
There are five different diseases that attack the language areas in the left hemisphere of the brain that slowly cause progressive impairments of language known as primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Each of these diseases hits a different part of the language network. In some cases, the disease hits the area responsible for grammar, in others the area responsible for word comprehension. Each disease progresses at a different rate and has different implications for intervention.

This study is based on the largest set of PPA autopsies—118 cases. Patients with PPA were prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study that included language testing and imaging of brain structure and brain function. The study included consent to brain donation at death.

An estimated one in 100,000 people have PPA. The initial symptoms of PPA can be subtle and sometimes attributed to anxiety or throat problems. In 40% of cases of PPA, the underlying disease is a very unusual form of Alzheimer's disease. It's unusual because it impairs language rather than memory, and because it can start much earlier when the person is under 65 years old.

In 60% of cases, the diseases causing PPA belong to an entirely different group of conditions called frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), responsible for about 50% of all dementias that start before the age of 65. Accurate diagnosis can now be achieved with new imaging and biochemical methods.

Source: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-04-diseases-language-areas-brain.html
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