Five-year change in refractive error and its risk factors, f
A Study was conducted to examine the 5-year change in refractive error in phakic eyes and its risk factors in the general population.

15010 participants were included in this study. After 5 years, a follow-up examination was carried out (83% participation). Linear and logistic regression analysis were conducted analysing potential risk factors.

--An age-related shift of refractive error was identified, namely 0.12 D for age 35–44 years, 0.25 D for age 45–54 years, 0.25 D for age 55–64 years and 0.12 D for age 65–74 years during the 5-year follow-up.

--Smokers had a hyperopic shift (OR=1.31), while baseline SE (OR=0.89 per dioptre) and female sex (OR=1.49) were linked with a myopic shift.

--Education, occupation and other cardiovascular parameters were not associated with change in refractive error.

Conclusively, The GHS shows a parabolic change in refractive error, with a myopic shift at 35–44 years, followed by a hyperopic shift at 45–64 years, which diminishes with age. Smoking is linked to a hyperopic shift, whereas female sex and a myopic baseline SE are linked to a myopic shift. Education and occupation were not associated with a change in refractive error between the ages of 35 and 74.