GLP-1 Receptor Agonists Lower Asthma Exacerbations in Patien
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GLP-1R (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor) agonists are approved to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. GLP-1R agonists reduce airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in preclinical models.

This study aimed to compare rates of asthma exacerbations and symptoms between adults with type 2 diabetes and asthma prescribed GLP-1R agonists and those prescribed SGLT-2 (sodium–glucose cotransporter-2) inhibitors, DPP-4 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) inhibitors, sulfonylureas, or basal insulin for diabetes treatment intensification.

This study was an electronic health records–based new-user, active-comparator, retrospective cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes and asthma newly prescribed GLP-1R agonists or comparator drugs at an academic healthcare system. The primary outcome was asthma exacerbations; the secondary outcome was encounters for asthma symptoms. Propensity scores were calculated for GLP-1R agonist and non–GLP-1R agonist use. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models included adjustment for multiple covariates.

-- Patients initiating GLP-1R agonists (n?=?448), SGLT-2 inhibitors (n?=?112), DPP-4 inhibitors (n?=?435), sulfonylureas (n?=?2,253), or basal insulin (n?=?2,692) were identified.

-- At 6 months, asthma exacerbation counts were lower in persons initiating GLP-1R agonists (reference) compared with SGLT-2 inhibitors, DPP-4 inhibitors, sulfonylureas, and basal insulin.

-- Healthcare encounters for asthma symptoms were also lower among GLP-1R agonist users.

Conclusively, adult patients with asthma prescribed GLP-1R agonists for type 2 diabetes had lower counts of asthma exacerbations compared with other drugs initiated for treatment intensification. GLP-1R agonists may represent a novel treatment for asthma associated with metabolic dysfunction.