GLP-1 receptor agonists and cardiovascular events in patient
The cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are still controversial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular events of GLP-1 (albiglutide, exenatide, liraglutide, semaglutide, lixisenatide and dulaglutide) receptor agonists in T2DM patients.

PubMed and Embase were searched to find relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to June 2019 that evaluated the effect of GLP-1 receptor agonists on cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM. The T2DM patients of all the eligible trials received either GLP-1 therapy or placebo, and the cardiovascular outcomes included death from cardiovascular causes, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction and fatal or non-fatal stroke.

They included 6 multinational double-blind randomized placebo-control trials that included a total of 52821 T2DM patients. The results indicated that GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced the risk of death from cardiovascular causes (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83–0.97; P = 0.004) and fatal or non-fatal stroke (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001) compared with the placebo controls. But GLP-1 receptor agonists did not significantly alter the fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction compared with the placebo (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82 – 1.01; P = 0.06).

They concluded that GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy could reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular causes and fatal or non-fatal stroke compared with the placebo in the treatment of T2DM patients in trials with cardiovascular outcomes.