Researchers examined the effects of milling and cooking whole grains in water to achieve starch gelatinization on postprandial blood glucose using a randomized crossover open-label design. Participants were adults with type 2 diabetes whose body weight or medications had not changed in at least 3 months.
Postprandial blood glucose (measured as incremental AUC [iAUC]) was measured following consumption of four nutrient-matched whole-wheat porridge test-meals. Test-meals included gelatinized or native starch and were made with either finely milled or intact whole-wheat.
-- Eighteen adults (63.1 ±9.8 years, HbA1c 57.0±11.5 mmol/mol [7.4±3.2%]) completed the study. iAUC was higher following cooked meals (gelatinized starch) than following uncooked meals (native starch).
-- Consuming finely milled whole-wheat produced a higher iAUC compared with intact whole-wheat.
-- There was no evidence of an interaction effect.
Conclusively, both the nature of starch and the grain structure of whole-wheat influence the glycemic response of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.