Growth patterns and Clinical Outcomes in association with Br
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The latest World Health Organization (WHO) guideline for low and middle income countries (LMICs) to boost clinical outcomes and growth trajectories in infants is exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and breastfeeding with complementary feeds until 12 months for HIV exposed and uninfected (HEU) infants or 24 months for HIV unexposed (HU) infants. Researchers look at development rates and clinical results in the first 9 months of life in relation to breastfeeding period in a post-hoc analysis of HEU and HU cohorts.

From birth to 9 months of age, two cohorts of children, HEU and HU, from a low-socioeconomic township in South Africa, were evaluated. Data from the clinic, anthropometry, and infant feeding were analyzed. To assess the impact of HIV exposure and breastfeeding period on growth and clinical outcomes, standard descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used.

Results:
--Included in this secondary analysis were 123 HEU and 157 HU infants breastfed for a median of 26 and 14 weeks respectively.

--Median WLZ score was significantly) lower in HEU than HU infants at 3, 6 and 9 months (-0.19 vs 2.09; -0.81 vs 0.28; 0.05 vs 0.97 respectively).

--The median LAZ score was significantly lower among HU infants at 3 and 6?months (-1.63 vs 0.91; -0.37 vs 0.51) and a significantly higher proportion of HU was classified as stunted at 3 and 6 months (3.9% vs 44.9%; 4.8% vs 20.9% respectively) independent of breastfeeding duration.

--A higher proportion of HEU infants experienced one or more episodes of skin rash (44.5% vs 12.8%) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (30.1% vs 10.9%).

--In a multivariable analysis, the odds of occurrence of wasting, skin rash, URTI or any clinical adverse event in HEU infants were 2.86, 7.06, 3.01 and 8.89 times higher than HU infants after adjusting for breastfeeding duration.

Conclusively, this study has generated additional evidence that HEU infants are at substantial risk of infectious morbidity and decreased growth trajectories that these adverse outcomes were independent of breastfeeding duration.

Source: https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887-021-02662-8
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