Hearing Sensitivity, Cardiovascular Risk, and Neurocognitive
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Both cardiovascular disease risk and hearing impairment are associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, the combined influence of the 2 risk factors on cognition is not well characterized. A Study was conducted to examine associations between hearing impairment, cardiovascular disease risk, and cognitive function.

This population-based, prospective cohort, multisite cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos included 9623 Hispanic or Latino adults aged 45 to 74 years.

Hearing impairment of at least mild severity was defined as the pure tone average of 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz greater than 25 dB hearing level (dB HL) in the better ear. The measure of cardiovascular disease risk was a latent class variable derived from body mass index, ankle-brachial index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, and the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk score.

Results:
Participants (N=9180) were 54.4% female and age 56.5 years on average. Hearing impairment was associated with poorer performance on all cognitive measures (global cognition: unstandardized beta, -0.11).
--Cardiovascular grouping (healthy, typical, high cardiovascular disease risk, and hyperglycemia) did not attenuate the associations between hearing impairment and cognition (global cognition: unstandardized beta, -0.11).
--However, cardiovascular grouping interacted with hearing impairment such that hyperglycemia in the context of hearing impairment exacerbated poor performance on learning and memory tasks (F3=3.70 and F3=2.92, respectively).

Hearing impairment (more than 25 dB) was associated with lower (z-score units) global cognition (BGC, -0.11) and consistently lower cognitive function on all considered cognitive domains (z-score units), including verbal learning and memory (BB-SEVLT-Sum, -0.15; BB-SEVLT-Recall, -0.10), verbal fluency (BWF, -0.13), and processing speed/executive functioning (BDSS, -0.06).

The findings of this cohort study suggest that hearing impairment increases the likelihood that individuals with excessively high glucose perform poorly on learning and memory tasks.

Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaotolaryngology/fullarticle/2774262
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