High body fat percentage with normal BMI increases osteoporo
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Older adults without obesity, but with a high body fat percentage, have greater risks for sarcopenia and osteoporosis when compared with individuals with obesity, according to findings published in Obesity.

Obesity is commonly defined by BMI rather than adiposity, which may have differential effects on musculoskeletal health. Musculoskeletal outcomes were compared in older adults with normal adiposity and normal BMI (NA-NBMI), those with high adiposity but normal BMI (HA-NBMI), and those with high adiposity and high BMI (HA-HBMI).

In 3,411 70-year-olds, obesity was defined as BMI greater than 30 kg/m2 and adiposity as body fat percentage greater than 25% (men) or greater than 35% (women) from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone parameters were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Sarcopenia was defined as low handgrip strength with or without low appendicular lean mass. Falls were self-reported 6 and 12 months later.

Results:
-- Prevalence of NA-NBMI, HA-NBMI, and HA-HBMI was 14.2%, 68.1%, and 17.7%, respectively.

-- Compared with HA-HBMI, HA-NBMI had increased likelihood for sarcopenia and osteoporosis but similar likelihood of falls.

-- HA-NBMI had lower values for bone geometry parameters, as well as grip strength, than both NA-NBMI and HA-HBMI.

Conclusively, high adiposity without high BMI is more common than BMI-defined obesity in older Swedish adults but does not provide similar protection from osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

Source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/oby.22984
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