High fish consumption may ‘counteract’ autoimmune diabetes r
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Adults positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies are more than twice as likely to develop adult-onset diabetes with low fish intake compared with high fish intake, according to findings published in Diabetes Care.

Islet autoimmunity is associated with diabetes incidence. Researchers investigated whether there was an interaction between dietary fish intake or plasma phospholipid n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration with the 65-kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) antibody positivity on the risk of developing adult-onset diabetes.

They used prospective data on 11,247 incident cases of adult-onset diabetes and 14,288 noncases from the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study conducted in eight European countries. Baseline plasma samples were analyzed for GAD65 antibodies and phospholipid n-3 PUFAs.

Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for incident diabetes in relation to GAD65 antibody status and tertiles of plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA or fish intake were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Additive (proportion attributable to interaction [AP]) and multiplicative interactions between GAD65 antibody positivity (gretaer than 65 units/mL) and low fish/n-3 PUFA were assessed.

Results:
-- The hazard of diabetes in antibody-positive individuals with low intake of total and fatty fish, respectively, was significantly elevated compared with people who were GAD65 antibody negative and had high fish intake, with evidence of additive interactions.

-- Individuals with high GAD65 antibody levels (greater than 167.5 units/mL) and low total plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFAs had a more than fourfold higher hazard of diabetes and an AP of 0.46 (0.12–0.80) compared with antibody-negative individuals with high n-3 PUFAs.

Conclusively, high fish intake or relative plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA concentrations may partially counteract the increased diabetes risk conferred by GAD65 antibody positivity.

Source: https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2020/12/07/dc20-1463
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