High flow nasal cannula during flexible bronchoscopy in Chil
Hypoxemia is the most frequent complication of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FB) in children. Guidelines recommend oxygen supplementation and conventional nasal prongs (NC) are used for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the use of high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) in children undergoing FB result in a lower incidence of hypoxemia than standard oxygen administration.

Patients aged 1 month–16 years undergoing elective FB were included in a prospective randomized controlled, nonblinded, single-center clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive oxygen via NC or HFNC. Patients baseline characteristics were recorded pre-bronchoscopy. The primary outcome was oxygen desaturation during the procedure defined as saturation less than 94%.

Results:
--An intention to treat analysis for 53 patients receiving NC and 51 receiving HFNC, showed HFNC patients were less likely to have hypoxemia than were NC patients, with an absolute risk reduction of 0.27 and a number needed to treat of 3.75.

--Moderate hypoxemia was observed significantly less often with HFNC than with NC. Severe hypoxemia was not different between groups.

--Patients undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) presented fewer desaturations with HFNC.

Finally, HFNC provides optimum oxygenation for elective FBs with a large reduction of desaturations, particularly when BAL is conducted, and it can be considered for oxygen administration.

Source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ppul.25655?af=R
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