High-risk neuroblastoma with metastases to bilateral kidneys
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Renal metastasis at diagnosis with neuroblastoma is rare. This article presents a 14-month-old boy who was diagnosed with high-risk neuroblastoma with multiple metastases, including bilateral kidneys. He received five cycles of induction chemotherapy and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. All of the lesions shrank, and magnetic resonance imaging indicated that some of the metastases had disappeared. However, there were residual masses in the bilateral kidneys, and histological examination revealed the presence of tumor cells. Therefore, the patient underwent unrelated cord blood stem cell transplantation, which involved killer-ligand incompatibility in the graft-versus-host direction, in addition to human leukocyte antigen C and DRB1 mismatches. Three months later, tumor progression occurred from the residual mass in the sacral canal and a new lesion in the pancreas. Although tumor progression could not be controlled by additional chemotherapy and local radiotherapy, the metastatic nodules in bilateral kidneys did not increase in size before his death...

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