Horner’s Syndrome During High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound A
Horner’s syndrome (HS) is a rare complication of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and radiofrequency ablation for thyroid nodules. Authors present such a case and discuss how to avoid this complication in the future.

This case occurred during HIFU treatment of a benign thyroid nodule (BTN). Ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were performed before the procedure. Volume reduction was evaluated at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months. Technical success was more than 50% reduction at 6 months.

A 30-year-old woman presented with a solitary symptomatic thyroid nodule. Her thyroid stimulating hormone was 1.16, ultrasound found a 13 mL right-thyroid EU-TIRADS 4 nodule. Two FNACs were read as Bethesda II. The subsequent HIFU procedure was conducted with local 2% lidocaine anesthesia. The procedure was painful (visual analogic scale 10/10) and ipsilateral partial ptosis occurred during the procedure.

Volume reduction at 12 months was 34.6% of the initial volume with persisting functional and cosmetic complaints, discomfort, and partial ptosis. As the volume reduction was less than 50%, the procedure was a technical failure. A new FNAC was read as Bethesda IV. A right lobectomy was performed without postoperative outcomes and without requiring hormonal replacement therapy. Pathological evaluation found no malignant cells.

HS is a rare complication of HIFU for management of BTNs. It may be symptomatic and have sequalae that persist for months. Severe neck pain may by associated, but further investigation is needed.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165111/