Idiopathic CD4+ T-cell Lymphocytopenia: Report of a Case 11
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Idiopathic CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare clinical syndrome defined by a persistent unexplained deficit of circulating CD4+ T-cells in the absence of HIV infection or any other cause of immunodeficiency. For a diagnosis, CD4+ T-cell counts should be below 300 cells/μl or less than 20% of total lymphocytes in repeated evaluations (2–3 months apart). The majority of cases are in adult individuals but the condition can also affect children and adolescents.

We report the case of a 23-year-old woman evaluated for asthenia and lymphocytopenia. Clinical examination was unremarkable but laboratory tests showed the presence of CD4 lymphocytopenia. Secondary causes of CD4 lymphocytopenia were ruled out and a previous diagnosis of idiopathic CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia was retained. CD4 lymphocytopenia has persisted for 11 years now but the patient has been clinically asymptomatic.

ICL is a rare condition and it is a diagnosis of exclusion. CD4 cells stabilize at a low level rather than continuing to fall as in HIV infection.

Source: https://www.ejcrim.com/index.php/EJCRIM/article/view/1589/2019
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