IgG4 - positive cell infiltration in various cardiovascular
Background
The diagnosis of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD), in general, depends on serum IgG4 concentrations and histopathological findings; therefore, diagnosis of IgG4-RD in cardiovascular organs/tissues is often difficult owing to the risk of tissue sampling.

Methods
Prevalence of IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in 103 consecutive cardiovascular surgical samples from 98 patients with various cardiovascular diseases was analyzed immunohistochemically....

http://bmccardiovascdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12872-017-0488-3
IgG4-positive cell infiltration in various cardiovascular disorders - results from histopathological analysis of surgical samples
The diagnosis of Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD), in general, depends on serum IgG4 concentrations and histopathological findings; therefore, diagnosis of IgG4-RD in cardiovascular organs/tissues is often difficult owing to the risk of tissue sampling. Prevalence of IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in 103 consecutive cardiovascular surgical samples from 98 patients with various cardiovascular diseases was analyzed immunohistochemically. The diagnoses of the enrolled patients included aortic aneurysm (abdominal, n?=?8; thoracic, n?=?9); aortic dissection (n?=?20); aortic stenosis (n?=?24), aortic regurgitation (n?=?10), and mitral stenosis/regurgitation (n?=?17). In total, 10 (9.7%) of the 103 specimens showed IgG4-positive cell infiltration with various intensities; five of these were aortic valve specimens from aortic stenosis, and IgG4-positive cell infiltration was present at >10 /HPF in three of them. In one aortic wall sample from an abdominal aortic aneurysm, various histopathological features of IgG4-RD, such as IgG4-positive cell infiltration, obliterating phlebitis, and storiform fibrosis, were observed. IgG4-positive cell infiltration was observed in 9.7% of the surgical cardiovascular specimens, mainly in the aortic valve from aortic stenosis and in the aortic wall from aortic aneurysm. Whether IgG4-positive cell infiltration has pathophysiological importance in the development or progression of cardiovascular diseases should be investigated in future studies.
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