Impact of diabetes mellitus on risk of major complications a
PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched from 1st January 2000 to 1st August 2021 for studies comparing DM and non-DM patients with hip fractures. Outcomes of interest were pooled using risk ratios (RR).

Sixteen studies were included. Meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant increased risk of mortality in diabetics as compared to non-diabetics after 1 year (RR: 1.24 95% CI 1.08, 1.43 I2=62% p=0.003). Pooled analysis of eight studies reporting adjusted mortality outcomes also demonstrated similar results (RR: 1.17 95% CI 1.09, 1.25 I2=74% p<0.0001). We noted a statistically significant increase in the risk of cardiac complications (RR: 1.44 95% CI 1.17, 1.78 I2=19% p=0.0005) and risk of renal failure in diabetics as compared to non-diabetics (RR: 1.32 95% CI 1.04, 1.68 I2=0% p=0.02); but no difference in the risk of cerebrovascular (RR: 1.45 95% CI 0.74, 2.85 I2=47% p=0.28), pulmonary (RR: 0.94 95% CI 0.73, 1.23 I2=8% p=0.67) and thromboembolic complications (RR: 0.81 95% CI 0.56, 1.17 I2=28% p=0.26).

Our results indicate that diabetics have an increased risk of mortality as compared to non-diabetics. Scarce data indicates that the risk of cardiac complications and renal failure are increased in patients with DM but there is no difference in the risk of cerebrovascular, pulmonary, or thromboembolic complications.