In Utero Exposure To Thionamide Antithyroid Drugs Linked To
A meta-analysis of 16 cohort studies comprising 5957, 15,785, and 15,666 exposures to CMZ/MMI, PTU, and untreated hyperthyroidism, respectively. Compared to nondisease controls, adjusted risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for congenital anomalies were increased for CMZ/MMI (RR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06–1.54) and PTU (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08–1.25). Crude risk for CMZ/MMI was increased relative to PTU (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01–1.43). An increased risk was also seen with exposure to both CMZ/MMI and PTU, that is, women who switched ATDs in pregnancy (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14–1.99). However, the timing of the ATD switch was highly variable and included prepregnancy switches in some studies. The excess number of anomalies per 1000 live births was 17.2 for patients exposed to CMZ/MMI, 9.8, for PTU exposure, and 31.4 for exposure to both CMZ/MMI and PTU. The risk in the untreated group did not differ from control or ATD groups. The untreated group was however highly heterogeneous in terms of thyroid status. Subgroup analysis showed more positive associations in studies with >500 exposures and up to 1-year follow-up. ATD therapy carries a small risk of congenital anomalies which is higher for CMZ/MMI than for PTU and does not appear to be reduced by switching ATDs in pregnancy.