Increased risk factors associated with lower BMD in antiretr
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Low BMD (bone mineral density) has been described as a non–AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)-related event in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-patients but it is poorly studied in young HIV-infected men who have received no previous antiretroviral therapy.

A cross-sectional study of 245 naïve-HIV-infected men over 21 and under 50?years old who voluntary attended the Infectious Disease Division appointment in Hospital Fundación Jimenez Díaz in Madrid. All subjects underwent a baseline DXA scan (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) performed prior to start antiretroviral treatment. Further, all patients were invited to participate in a substudy on bone mineral metabolism. All the information was collected through clinical history and complementary questionnaire.

Results:
-- The mean age was 36.4?years, been 68% Caucasian, 29.3% Latin American and 2.7% African race.

-- At the time of diagnosis, 91% of patients had stage-A.

-- 10% had a count below 200 CD4 cells/?L, and 40% had a CD4/CD8 cell-count-ratio below 0.4.

-- Regarding lifestyle and risk factors, 14.1% presented underweight, 36.1% were not engage in any regular exercise, 51.9% were active smokers and 35.3% reported drug use.

-- Low levels of vitamin D were seen in 87.6% of the study participants. Low BMD was found in 22.8% of the patients.

-- It was only observed a significant association of Z-score in lumbar spine (LS) with CD8 and the CD4/CD8 ratio, and with alcohol for femoral neck (FN) measurement.

Conclusively, find prevalence of increased bone involvement among naïve HIV-infected men under 50?years old. Further studies are necessary to evaluate if changes in actual guidelines are needed to assess BMD measurements in HIV-infected adult male patients under 50.

Source: https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-021-06263-9
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