Increased water intake may boost cognition among children, f
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Hydration effects on cognition remain understudied in children. This is concerning since a large proportion of children exhibit insufficient hydration.

This study investigated the effects of water intake on urinary markers of hydration and cognition among preadolescents.

A 3-intervention crossover design was used among 9- to 11-y-olds. Participants maintained their water intake or consumed high (2.5 L/d) or low (0.5 L/d) water for 4 d. The primary outcomes were performance on cognitive tasks requiring inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility assessed using a modified flanker, go/no-go, and color-shape switch tasks, respectively. Secondary outcomes included urine hydration indices assessed using 24-h urine collected during day 4 of each intervention.

Results:
-- There was a significant difference in hydration across all 3 interventions. Urine color during the low intervention was greater than during ad libitum (AL), and both were greater than during the high intervention.
-- Similarly, osmolality and urine specific gravity (USG) during the low intervention were greater during AL, and both were greater than during the high intervention.
-- USG and osmolality AL values were related to switch task measures.
-- Benefits of the high intervention were observed during the switch task, whereby participants exhibited 34% lower working memory cost relative to the low intervention.
-- No significant changes in cognition were observed for the flanker and go/no-go tasks.

Conclusively, The water intervention improved urinary markers of hydration and had selective benefits during task switching. Furthermore, children's cognitive flexibility selectively benefits from greater habitual hydration and water intake.

Source: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-abstract/149/12/2255/5558303?redirectedFrom=fulltext
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