Individuals Recovering From Covid-19 Helpful For Sustained C
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According to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, many infected patients remain asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Others, especially those with comorbidities, can develop severe clinical disease with atypical pneumonia and multiple system organ failures.

The researchers obtained blood samples and clinical data from 46 hospitalized Covid-19 patients and 39 non-hospitalized individuals who had recovered from confirmed Covid-19. Both groups were compared to healthy, Covid-19-negative controls. Most individuals in the hospitalized group had active SAR-CoV-2 viruses in their blood and were in the hospital at the time of sample collection. All individuals in the non-hospitalized group were convalescent at the time of sample collection.

From the blood samples, researchers were able to separate specific immune cell subsets and analyze cell surface markers. Some of these results can reveal whether immune cells have become activated and exhausted by the infection. Exhausted immune cells may increase susceptibility to a secondary infection or hamper the development of protective immunity to Covid-19.

In addition, the researchers were able to analyze changes over time. The most surprising finding involved non-hospitalized patients. While the researchers saw upregulated activation markers in hospitalized patients, they also found several activations and exhaustion markers were expressed at higher frequencies in non-hospitalized convalescent samples.

Looking at these markers over time, it was apparent that immune dysregulation in the non-hospitalized individuals did not quickly resolve. Furthermore, the dysregulation of T cell activation and exhaustion markers in the non-hospitalized cohort was more pronounced in the elderly. The researchers reported, this is the first description of sustained immune dysregulation due to Covid-19 in a large group of non-hospitalized convalescent patients.

The B and T cells from both patient cohorts had phenotypes consistent with activation and cellular exhaustion throughout the first two months of infection. And in the non-hospitalized individuals, the activation markers and cellular exhaustion increased over time. These findings, illustrate the persistent nature of the adaptive immune system changes that have been noted in Covid-19 and suggest longer-term effects that may shape the maintenance of immunity to SARS-CoV-2.

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