Insights into non-classic and emerging causes of hypopituita
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Hypopituitarism is defined as one or more partial or complete pituitary hormone deficiencies, which are related to the anterior and/or posterior gland and can have an onset in childhood or adulthood.

The most common aetiology is a sellar or suprasellar lesion, often an adenoma, which causes hypopituitarism due to tumour mass effects, or the effects of surgery and/or radiation therapy. However, other clinical conditions, such as traumatic brain injury, and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, can result in hypopituitarism, and there are also genetic causes of hypopituitarism.

Furthermore, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat cancer is increasing the risk of hypopituitarism, with a pattern of hormone defects that is different from the classic patterns and depends on mechanisms that are specific for each drug. Moreover, autoantibody production against the pituitary and hypothalamus has been demonstrated in studies investigating the development or worsening of some cases of hypopituitarism. Finally, evidence suggests that posterior pituitary damage can affect oxytocin secretion.

The aim of this Review is to summarize current knowledge on non-classic and emerging causes of hypopituitarism, so as to help clinicians improve early identification, avoid life-threatening events and improve the clinical care and quality of life of patients at risk of hypopituitarism.

Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41574-020-00437-2#
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