Insulinemic and inflammatory diets increase type 2 diabetes
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Postmenopausal women consuming a high proinflammatory or hyperinsulinemic diet have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, according to data from the Women’s Health Initiative published in Diabetes Care.

The empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) scores assess the insulinemic and inflammatory potentials of habitual dietary patterns, irrespective of the macronutrient content, and are based on plasma insulin response or inflammatory biomarkers, respectively. The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) assess postprandial glycemic potential based on dietary carbohydrate content. Researchers tested the hypothesis that dietary patterns promoting hyperinsulinemia, chronic inflammation, or hyperglycemia may influence type 2 diabetes risk.

Researchers calculated dietary scores from baseline (1993–1998) food frequency questionnaires among 73,495 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative, followed through March 2019. They used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for type 2 diabetes risk. They also estimated multivariable-adjusted absolute risk of type 2 diabetes.

Results:
-- During a median 13.3 years of follow-up, 11,009 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed.

-- Participants consuming the most hyperinsulinemic or proinflammatory dietary patterns experienced greater risk of type 2 diabetes; HRs comparing highest to lowest dietary index quintiles were EDIH 1.49 and EDIP 1.45.

-- The absolute excess incidence for the same comparison was 220 (EDIH) and 271 (EDIP) cases per 100,000 person-years.

-- GI and GL were not associated with type 2 diabetes risk: GI 0.99 and GL 1.01.

Conclusively, these findings in this diverse cohort of postmenopausal women suggest that lowering the insulinemic and inflammatory potentials of the diet may be more effective in preventing type 2 diabetes than focusing on glycemic foods.

Source: https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/44/3/707
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