Interrelationships between sclerostin, secondary hyperparath
Sclerostin is an osteocyte-derived inhibitor of bone formation and is increased in kidney failure, but its role in the pathogenesis of renal bone disease remains unknown.

This Cross-sectional and prospective cohort study aimed to explore the association of serum sclerostin with bone metabolism in patients undergoing hemodialysis, with a particular focus on parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent and PTH-independent pathways.

The participants were 654 patients undergoing hemodialysis at 10 facilities in Japan.

Researchers employed multivariable linear regression to explore whether sclerostin levels were associated with metacarpal bone mineral density (BMD), intact PTH, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b). They employed mediation analyses to explore whether and to what extent the association of PTH with bone turnover markers is mediated by sclerostin. They also compared sclerostin levels between patients with and without previous or incident fractures.

-- The median sclerostin level in hemodialysis patients was 3–4-fold higher than that in healthy individuals.

-- Higher sclerostin levels were associated with higher metacarpal BMD and lower levels of intact PTH, BAP, and TRACP-5b.

-- However, the relationships of sclerostin with bone turnover markers were substantially attenuated after adjustment for PTH.

-- Mediation analysis suggested that the effects of PTH on bone turnover markers were mainly direct rather than mediated by sclerostin.

-- Sclerostin levels were not associated with previous or incident fractures.

Conclusively, these findings suggest that in patients undergoing dialysis, sclerostin has only a limited role in bone metabolism and may not mediate the effect of PTH on bone turnover.