Intranasal administration of insulin does not cause hypoglyc
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Intranasal insulin administration may improve cognitive function in patients with dementia and may prevent cognitive problems after surgery. Although the metabolic effects of intranasal insulin in non-surgical patients have been studied, its influence on glucose concentration during surgery is unknown.

Researchers conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-T2DM patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups (normal saline, 40 international units [IU] of intranasal insulin, and 80 IU intranasal insulin). Insulin was given after the induction of general anesthesia. Glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured in ten-minute intervals during the first hour and every 30 min thereafter. The primary outcome was the change in glucose concentration 30 min after intranasal insulin administration.

-- A total of 115 patients were studied, 43 of whom had T2DM.

-- In non-T2DM patients, 40 IU intranasal insulin did not affect glucose concentration, while 80 IU intranasal insulin led to a statistically significant but not clinically important decrease in blood glucose levels.

-- In T2DM patients, neither 40 IU nor 80 IU of insulin affected glucose concentration.

-- No hypoglycemia was observed after intranasal insulin administration in any patients.

-- In non-T2DM patients, changes in plasma insulin were similar in the three groups.

-- In T2DM patients, there was an increase in plasma insulin concentrations ten minutes after administration of 80 IU of intranasal insulin compared with saline.

Conclusively, in patients with and without T2DM undergoing elective cardiac surgery, intranasal insulin administration at doses as high as 80 IU did not cause clinically important hypoglycemia.