Intraocular pressure, glaucoma and dietary caffeine consumpt
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The researcher examined the association of habitual caffeine intake with intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma and whether these associations were modified by a genetic predisposition to higher IOP. They also assessed whether genetic predisposition to higher coffee consumption was related to IOP.

Researchers included 121,374 participants (baseline ages 39-73 years) with data on coffee and tea intake and corneal-compensated IOP measurements in 2009. In a subset of 77,906 participants with up to five web-based 24-hour-recall food frequency questionnaires, They evaluated total caffeine intake. They also assessed the same relations with any glaucoma (9,286 cases and 189,763 controls).
Mean IOP was 16.0 mmHg (Standard Deviati MR analysis did not support a causal effect of coffee drinking on IOP. Greater caffeine intake was weakly associated with lower IOP: the highest (equal or more than 232mg/day) vs. lowest (less than 87mg/day) caffeine consumption was associated with a 0.10 mmHg lower IOP. However, this association was significantly modified by IOP PRS: among those in the highest IOP PRS quartile, consuming more than 480mg/day versus less than 80 mg/day was associated with a 0.35 mmHg higher IOP. The relation between caffeine intake and glaucoma was null. However, this relation was also significantly modified by IOP PRS: compared to those in the lowest IOP PRS quartile consuming no caffeine, those in the highest IOP PRS quartile consuming equal or more than 321mg/day had a 3.90-fold higher glaucoma prevalence.

Habitual caffeine consumption was weakly associated with lower IOP and the association between caffeine consumption and glaucoma was null. However, among participants with the strongest genetic predisposition to elevated IOP, greater caffeine consumption was associated with higher IOP and higher glaucoma prevalence.

Source:https://www.aaojournal.org/article/S0161-6420(20)31157-X/fulltext
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