Intraoperative optical coherence tomography in anterior segm
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Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) is a noninvasive imaging modality that provides a real-time dynamic feedback of the various surgical steps. Comprehensive literature search was performed in MEDLINE using “intraoperative optical coherence tomography” and “iOCT” as keywords. The use of iOCT as an aid to decision-making has been successfully reported in cases undergoing keratoplasty, implantable Collamer lens (ICL) implantation as well as cataract surgery. iOCT helps to assess the graft-host relationship in penetrating keratoplasty. It helps confirm the presence of a big bubble, detect subclinical big bubbles and guide layer by layer stromal dissection in cases of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. It acts as a guide during crucial surgical steps in endothelial keratoplasty, right from scoring of the Descemet membrane to ensuring graft apposition at the end of surgery.

The morphological features of the corneal incision in phacoemulsification may be assessed. iOCT is a useful tool in assessing the status of the posterior capsule and may help identify preexisting posterior capsular defects during cataract surgery in various clinical scenarios such as posterior polar cataract, traumatic cataract, and vitrectomized eyes. It allows on-table assessment of the ICL vault and potentially facilitates exchange of ICL in the same sitting in extremes of vault. Ocular surface disorders such as ocular surface squamous neoplasia, pterygium, and dermoid may find an application for iOCT, wherein an iOCT-guided stromal dissection will ensure adequate depth of dissection. Further technological advancements may allow for automatic centration and tracking and address the present limitation of instrument-induced shadowing.