Intrapartum USG - A useful method for evaluating labor progr
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Introduction
Although most obstetric ultrasound examinations are performed to make antenatal diagnoses of fetal abnormalities, the use of ultrasound for women in labor is increasing as a result of accumulating evidence of its usefulness for objectively evaluating the progress of labor.

When progress failure or fetal distress occurs, obstetricians should choose between an operative vaginal delivery or a cesarean section. For the fetus successful instrumental delivery is safer than emergency cesarean delivery. Because the fetal head is impacted deeply in the maternal pelvis, second-stage cesarean section is in association with increased maternal risks such as major hemorrhage, bladder injury, and extension tears of the uterine angle resulting in broad ligament hematoma. Furthermore, cesarean section after failed vacuum extraction is also associated with an increased risk of fetal trauma. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage with cesarean section following failed operative vaginal delivery is 1/334 compared to 1/860 with successful vacuum delivery. Therefore, it remains to be determined if intrapartum ultrasound can be used to diagnose the presence of abnormal labor and predict the possibility of successful instrumental delivery, consequently improving maternal and fetal outcomes.....

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4245334/
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