Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Small for Gestational Ag
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The magnitude of the association of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA) status with cognitive outcomes in preterm and term-born children has not been established.

To examine cognitive outcomes of preterm and term-born children who had IUGR and were SGA compared with children who were appropriate for gestational age (AGA) during the first 12 years of life.

Inclusion criteria were assessment of cognitive outcomes (full-scale IQ or a cognitive subscale), inclusion of an AGA group as comparison group, and inclusion of gestational age at birth and completion of cognitive assessment up to 12 years of age.

Results: In this study of 89 samples from 60 studies including 52 822 children, children who had IUGR and were SGA had significantly poorer cognitive outcomes than children with AGA in childhood. For cognitive scores, associations are consistent for preterm and term-born children, with higher effect sizes reported for term-born IUGR and AGA group comparisons. Analyses on BII revealed a significantly increased risk in the preterm children who had IUGR and were SGA compared with the children with AGA.

Conclusively, Growth vulnerabilities assessed antenatally (IUGR) and at the time of birth (SGA) are significantly associated with lower childhood cognitive outcomes in preterm and term-born children compared with children with AGA. These findings highlight the need to develop interventions that boost cognitive functions in these high-risk groups.

Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2766460
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