Irisin is a predictor of sarcopenic obesity in type 2 diabet
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Researchers aimed to evaluate sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), possible relationships with serum irisin and myostatin levels, and the effect of glycemic control on SO.

Ninety T2DM patients were included in this a cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia was determined by evaluating muscle mass (bioelectrical impedance analysis), muscle strength (HGS), and gait speed (GS). Patients with muscle mass loss with functionally reduced muscle strength and/or performance were considered sarcopenic. In addition, participants were divided into 3 groups according to the FM (fat mass)/FFM (fat-free mass) ratio [group 1:5th-50th percentiles; group 2:50th-95th percentiles and group 3: more than 95 percentiles (sarcopenic obese)]. Irisin, myostatin levels and metabolic parameters were measured in all patients.

The prevalence of sarcopenia and SO was 25.6% and 35.6%, respectively. Irisin levels were lower in sarcopenic patients, while glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c), body mass index (BMI), FM, and FM index were higher. From group 1 to group 3, BMI, FM, FM index, GS, myostatin, and A1c increased, and muscle mass percentage, HGS, and irisin decreased. A positive correlation was found between FM/FFM and myostatin and a negative correlation between FM/FFM and irisin. Irisin remained an important predictor of SO, even after adjusting for confounding variables. The optimal cut-off value for irisin to predict SO was 9.49 ng/mL. In addition, A1c was an independent risk factor for SO development.

This study showed that low irisin levels (<9.49ng/mL) and poor glycemic control in T2DM patients were an independent risk factor, especially for SO.