Iron Deficiency Linked To Increased Risk Of Cardiovascular D
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A recent study aimed to assess the association between iron deficiency and increased incident CV disease and mortality in the general population.The study included 12,164 individuals with a median of 59 years and 55% were women. During the baseline study visit, cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities such as smoking, obesity, diabetes and cholesterol were assessed via a thorough clinical assessment including blood samples. Participants were classified as iron deficient or not according to two definitions: 1) absolute iron deficiency, which only includes stored iron (ferritin); and 2) functional iron deficiency, which includes iron in storage (ferritin) and iron in circulation for use by the body (transferrin). It was observed that at baseline, 60% of participants had absolute iron deficiency and 64% had functional iron deficiency. During a median follow-up of 13.3 years there were 18.2% deaths. Of these,4.7% died from a cardiovascular cause. Incidence coronary heart disease and stroke were diagnosed in 8.5% and 6.3% participants, respectively. Findings also showed that functional iron deficiency was associated with a 24% higher risk of coronary heart disease, 26% raised risk of cardiovascular mortality, and 12% increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with no functional iron deficiency. Absolute iron deficiency was associated with a 20% raised risk of coronary heart disease compared with no absolute iron deficiency, but was not linked with mortality. There were no associations between iron status and incident stroke.This analysis implies that if iron deficiency had been absent at baseline, about 5% of deaths, 12% of cardiovascular deaths, and 11% of new coronary heart disease diagnoses would not have occurred in the following decade. It was hence stated that iron deficiency was highly prevalent in this middle-aged population, with nearly two-thirds having functional iron deficiency and these individuals were more likely to develop heart disease and were also more likely to die during the next 13 years.

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ehf2.13589
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