#JAMA Study: Severity of COVID-19 in US Children and Adolesc
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Researchers used a cohort analysis to estimate the modified associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and extreme COVID-19 in pediatric patients in the hospital. The discharge data were used to calculate the correlations between demographic and clinical characteristics and extreme COVID-19 in pediatric COVID-19 patients.

Severe COVID-19 was defined as care requiring treatment in an intensive care unit or step-down unit, involving use of invasive mechanical ventilation, or resulting in death.
Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% CIs for severe COVID-19 were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.4.

Results:
--Among 20?714 pediatric patients with COVID-19, 10950 were girls, 11?153 were aged 12 to 18 years, 8148 were Hispanic or Latino individuals, 5054 were non-Hispanic Black individuals. Among these patients with COVID-19, 6047 had 1 or more chronic conditions.

--Among the cohort of 2430 pediatric patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, 756 experienced severe COVID-19.

--An increased association of severe COVID-19 was observed among patients with 1 or more chronic conditions vs those with none (AOR, 3.27); in children aged 2 - 5 years or 6 - 11 years vs those aged 12 - 18 years (AORs, 1.53); and in male vs female patients (AOR, 1.52). There was no statistically significant association between race/ethnicity or insurance type and severe COVID-19.

In this cohort study, approximately 756 of COVID-19-positive hospitalized pediatric patients had extreme COVID-19. In comparison to older children (those aged 2-11 years), younger children (those aged 2-11 years) had a higher correlation with extreme COVID-19 (those aged 12-18 years).

These results suggests that existing chronic conditions and male sex are independently associated with severe COVID-19.

Although most children with COVID-19 experience mild illness, some children develop serious illness that leads to hospitalization, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, and death.

Understanding the factors linked to extreme COVID-19 disease in children may aid in the development of prevention and control measures. Protecting children from COVID-19 and avoiding poor outcomes requires reducing infection risk through group prevention strategies.

Source: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2778347?resultClick=1
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