Left Lung and Pulmonary Artery Hypoplasia: A Rare Case of He
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Pulmonary hypoplasia or agenesis is a rare congenital disorder that results in lung underdevelopment. This disease is usually found in children but rarely encountered in adults. This report describes the case of an 84-year-old woman diagnosed with a unilateral pulmonary hypoplasia presenting simultaneously with left pulmonary artery hypoplasia. Due to this condition, the patient had a lifelong history of pulmonary infections that resulted in several bronchiectases in the affected lung.

Moreover, the pulmonary artery hypoplasia led to the development of pulmonary hypertension and collateral circulation causing hemoptysis, giving rise to the patient attending the emergency department. Although we were able to medically manage the hemoptysis, it can be fatal and require surgical intervention. Hence, an early diagnosis is essential so that appropriate follow-up and prompt prevention and treatment of complications, such as pulmonary infections, hemoptysis and pulmonary hypertension, are achieved.

In this case, the main differential diagnoses are congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) and Swyer–James–MacLeod syndrome (SJMS). CPAM is a congenital lung disease characterized by a multicystic mass of pulmonary tissue, which commonly presents with recurrent pulmonary infections.

Source: https://www.ejcrim.com/index.php/EJCRIM/article/view/1490/2089
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