Leptospirosis complicated with Guillain Barre syndrome, papi
The clinical course of leptospirosis varies from mild to severe disease. Published in BMC infectious diseases, the authors present a case of leptospirosis complicated with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), papillitis, and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura(TTP).

A 21-year-old male presented with fever, myalgia, oliguria and dyspnoea where he was managed as for leptospirosis complicated with pulmonary haemorrhages and acute renal failure. Leptospirosis was confirmed by Microscopic Agglutination Test(MAT) with a fourfold rise in antibody titre between acute and convalescent serum.

The highest antibody titre was against Leptospira antigen serogroup Semaranga (strain Patoc) (1:1280) followed by serogroup Australis (strain Australis) (1:640) and serogroup Autumnalis (strain Bankgkinang) (1:320). Two weeks later he developed blindness, ascending weakness of lower limbs with global areflexia and an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy(AIDP) variant GBS was confirmed with nerve conduction studies.

TTP complicated the picture several days later. He was initiated on plasmapheresis where clinical improvement was seen after 14 cycles. He had an incomplete neurological recovery with permanent vision loss but completely recovered from TTP. He also had permanent renal impairment.

Key takeaway:-
Leptospirosis should be suspected and treated empirically in the relevant clinical settings where it can present with an atypical clinical picture as in this case with an acute febrile illness followed by GBS as well as TTP.

Read in detail here: https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-018-3616-5
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