Levels of ankle–brachial index and the risk of diabetes mell
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This is a retrospective cohort study of persons with type 2 diabetes aged 35–85 years. Participants had an ABI measurement that was classified into six categories. For each category of ABI, we assessed the incidence of mortality; macrovascular complications of diabetes: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic stroke, and a composite of these two; and microvascular complications of this metabolic condition: nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. We also estimated the HRs for these outcomes by ABI category using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Data from 34 689 persons with type 2 diabetes were included. The mean age was 66.2; 51.5% were men; and the median follow-up was 6.0 years. The outcome with the highest incidence was nephropathy, with 24.4 cases per 1000 person-years in the reference category of 1.1≤ABI≤1.3. The incidences in this category for mortality and AMI were 15.4 and 4.1, respectively. In the Cox models, low ABI was associated with increased risk and was significant from ABI lower than 0.9; below this level, the risk kept increasing steeply. High ABI (over 1.3) was also associated with significant increased risk for most outcomes.

Conclusively, different ABI categories were associated with different risks of mortality, macrovascular, and microvascular complications in persons with diabetes, asymptomatic for PAD, and in primary prevention. This could help improve preventive interventions in these patients, differentiating each group according to the level of vascular impairment.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059529/