Longer Diabetes Duration Increases Risk For Frozen Shoulder,
This study aimed to examine the association of frozen shoulder (FS) with demographic and diabetes-related outcomes in individuals with type 1 (T1D) or type 2 (T2D) diabetes aged more than 30 years.

Multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for demographics were used to calculate the proportion of FS in association with age, gender, diabetes duration, body mass index (BMI), haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) and diabetes treatment.

-- The unadjusted percentage of FS was higher in T1D compared to T2D (0.22% vs. 0.06%).

-- In T1D, adjusted regression models revealed higher prevalence of FS in women than men (0.26 [0.20-0.34] % vs. 0.15 [0.11-0.21] %).

-- No significant relationship of age and BMI with FS was found in both diabetes types.

-- Longer diabetes duration was associated with a higher proportion of FS in T1D and T2D.

-- In T1D, HbA1c more than 7% was related to a higher proportion of FS compared to HbA1c less than 7% (0.25 [0.19-0.32] vs. 0.12 [0.08-0.20] %), while an inverse relationship was found in T2D (HbA1c less than 7%: 0.08 [0.07-0.10] vs. HbA1c more than 7%: 0.05 [0.04-0.06] %).

Conclusively, different associations of FS with gender and HbA1c were observed for T1D and T2D; however, longer diabetes duration increases the risk for FS independent of diabetes type. Musculoskeletal diseases are still underreported in individuals with diabetes and awareness should be raised for FS as a specific diabetes complication.

Source: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34425597/