Low Calorie Diet Not Only Delays Development Of Diabetes, Bu
Caloric restriction can delay the development of metabolic diseases ranging from insulin resistance to type 2 diabetes and is linked to both changes in the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota and immunological consequences. However, the interaction between dietary intake, the microbiome, and the immune system remains poorly described.

Researchers transplanted the gut microbiota from an obese female before (AdLib) and after (CalRes) an 8-week very-low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day) into germ-free mice. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to evaluate taxa with differential abundance between the AdLib- and CalRes-microbiota recipients and single-cell multidimensional mass cytometry to define immune signatures in murine colon, liver, and spleen. Recipients of the CalRes sample exhibited overall higher alpha diversity and restructuring of the gut microbiota with decreased abundance of several microbial taxa (e.g., Clostridium ramosum, Hungatella hathewayi, Alistipi obesi). Transplantation of CalRes-microbiota into mice decreased their body fat accumulation and improved glucose tolerance compared to AdLib-microbiota recipients. Finally, the CalRes-associated microbiota reduced the levels of intestinal effector memory CD8+ T cells, intestinal memory B cells, and hepatic effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

Caloric restriction shapes the gut microbiome which can improve metabolic health and may induce a shift towards the naïve T and B cell compartment and, thus, delay immune senescence. Understanding the role of the gut microbiome as mediator of beneficial effects of low calorie diets on inflammation and metabolism may enhance the development of new therapeutic treatment options for metabolic diseases.

Source: https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-022-01249-4
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