Lung ultrasound was more efficient compared to chest X-ray f
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Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represents one of the most common infectious diseases among children. Diagnosis of CAP is mainly clinical. Chest X-ray (CXR) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis in severe or controversial conditions.

Recently, some authors have focused on the application of ultrasound in lung diseases. Researchers aimed to study the concordance between LUS and CXR in evaluating specific signs of CAP. As a secondary aim, they sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of LUS in CAP diagnosis compared with CXR. Finally, the role of LUS was evaluated during the follow up.

Study included 68 children (less than 16 years old) whoo were hospitalized with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of CAP (cases: N = 41), or with no respiratory diseases (controls: N = 27), in whom a CXR was performed for clinical indications. All the children underwent LUS during hospitalization. The average time needed to perform LUS was 5–10 min for each child, and 19/41 cases were re-evaluated by LUS and CXR 30 days after discharge.

Results:
--Lung ultrasound confirmed CAP diagnosis in 40/41 patients.

--Concordance between the two techniques was K = 0.88 for the right lung and K = 0.70 for the left lung.
--Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 96% compared with CXR.

--At the follow up, sensitivity increased to 100% while specificity was 94%.

Conclusively, this study showed a potential benefit of LUS compared with CXR in the diagnosis and the follow up of CAP.

Source: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ped.14469?af=R
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