MINOCA-induced apical ballooning case report: a diagnostic c
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Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is a recently described phenomenon where no flow-limiting lesions are noted on coronary angiography in a patient with electrocardiogram changes, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and symptoms suggesting acute myocardial infarction. Patients with MINOCA can also potentially develop structural cardiac defects through ischaemic injury. Therefore, the absence of a flow-limiting lesion on angiography coupled with structural defects (e.g. apical ballooning) can very easily result in a diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC). This can lead to potentially serious consequences since treatment options between TTC and MINOCA are different.

Authors report a case of a patient presenting with features suggestive of TTC but where the final diagnosis was of a MINOCA that induced an apical ventricular septal defect (VSD). Reaching the correct diagnosis proved challenging given that there is no gold standard diagnostic modality for diagnosing MINOCA.

Imaging adjuncts played a vital role in both diagnosing the underlying MINOCA as well as revealing and planning closure of the resultant VSD. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging played an instrumental role in establishing the patient’s primary pathology and in planning a remediation of the structural defect. Structural myocardial defects in a patient with a diagnosis of TTC should prompt clinicians to further investigate whether there is an underlying infarct aetiology (MINOCA).

Source: https://academic.oup.com/ehjcr/article/5/7/ytab240/6323503