Management of Bladder Pain Syndrome (BPS): A Practical Guide
Bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a prevalent and pervasive disease. The physical and psychological sequelae can be very burdensome for the patient, and the condition represents a real challenge for the clinician as well. With no simple pathognomonic test, finding harmony in navigating patient care can be demanding. Diagnosis and management rely upon a multidisciplinary and holistic approach. Treatment options include conservative measures and pharmacotherapies as well as bladder instillation therapies. Ultimately, surgery may be offered but only in cases of refractory disease. This article offers a pragmatic guide for clinicians managing this challenging disease.