Maternal-fetal complications in pregnancy: a comparison betw
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A recent study shows that women with Type 1 DM have a higher risk of macrosomia than Type 2 DM and women with Type 2 DM have a higher risk of spontaneous abortion than Type 1 DM.

The aim of the study was a retrospective comparison of the differences in maternal-fetal outcomes between women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM).

A cohort of 135 patients with pregestational diabetes, 73 with T1DM and 62 with T2DM, in intensive insulin treatment throughout pregnancy were evaluated. Clinical and metabolic parameters and the prevalence of maternal and fetal complications were assessed.

The study showed;

--Women with T1DM showed lower pregestational BMI, pregestational weight, weight at delivery, ∆_total_IR requirement (IR) at the first, second, and third trimesters, and higher weight gain during pregnancy, pregestational HbA1c, HbA1c in the first, second, and third trimesters compared to T2DM.

--Women with T1DM had a higher risk of macrosomia than T2DM, while women with T2DM showed a higher prevalence of abortion than T1DM.

--A multivariate analysis, pregestational BMI, and ∆_total_IR of the first trimester were independently associated with abortion in T2DM, while weight gain during pregnancy was independently associated with macrosomia in T1DM.

Conclusively, women with T1DM have a higher risk of macrosomia than T2DM due to weight gain throughout pregnancy. By contrast, women with T2DM have a higher risk of spontaneous abortion than T1DM, due to pregestational BMI and ∆_total_IR in the first trimester.

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Source: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03702-y
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