Microscopic polyangiitis in bronchiectasis due to M. abscess
Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial–pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) is increasing in incidence and prevalence. Mycobacterium abscessus (M.abscessus) is a rapid growing multi-resistant NTM associated with severe NTM-PD requiring prolonged antibiotic therapy.

Complications of therapy are common but reports on direct complications of active NTM-PD are rare. Vasculitis has been described as a rare complication of NTM-PD, most often in individuals with inherited immune defects. This case is the first to describe an ANCA positive vasculitide (Microscopic Polyangiitis) secondary to M.abscessus pulmonary disease.

A 70-year-old female with bronchiectasis underwent a clinical decline associated with the growth of M.abscessus and was diagnosed with NTM-PD. Before treatment could be initiated she developed small joint arthralgia and a glove and stocking axonal loss sensorimotor neuropathy.

Positive Perinuclear Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (P-ANCA) and Myeloperoxidase-ANCA (MPO-ANCA) titres led to a diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis. Further investigation revealed reduced interferon-gamma production but no other significant immune dysfunction.

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