Multimodal Imaging of the White Dot Syndromes and Related Di
The white dot syndromes encompass a group of rare posterior uveitis conditions that are characterized by outer retinal and/or choroidal hypopigmented lesions that are thought to be inflammatory in nature. The size, shape, and location of lesions in the fundus aid in differentiating these conditions. Multimodal imaging, including modalities such as fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography, among others, has become integral in diagnosing and monitoring many of the white dot syndromes. Furthermore, multimodal imaging modalities have provided insights into the pathogenesis and exact sites within the retina and choroid affected by white dot syndromes.

The white dot syndromes (WDS) comprise a group of diseases characterized by lesions of the outer retina, retinal pigment epithelium, choriocapillaris, choroid or a combination of these sites [1,2]. The WDS are hypothesized to have an inflammatory etiology, and this is more evident for certain conditions, such as birdshot chorioretinopathy (BCR), in which vitreous inflammation and retinal vasculitis often accompany the choroidal birdshot lesions. In many of the other WDS, inflammation of the anterior chamber and vitreous cavity may be lacking. While the WDS often present with symptoms of blurred vision, floaters, photopsias, and scotomata, fundus examination and imaging reveal distinct findings, including the specific location, size, and configuration of the lesions, allowing distinct classification of the disease.

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