New Treatment Option for Capillary Lymphangioma: Bleomycin-B
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The treatment of microcystic and combined lymphangiomas, especially in the head and neck region, is still a challenge because the lymphangiomas do not respond to conventional therapies and their recurrence rate is high, regardless of the treatment choice. Complete surgical resection is the main treatment of lymphangiomas, but because of localization perioperative complications, such as bleeding, neural damage and airway obstruction are common disadvantages of this method.

Bleomycin-based sclerotherapy is another common therapeutic approach, in which the lymphocysts are aspirated, and 25% to 50% of their volumes are replaced with a sclerotisant drug. This is an effective treatment in cases in which the vessels are large enough for an intravascular or intracystic injection, but because of the small size of vessels and cysts, the microcystic and combined lymphangiomas are not suitable for sclerotherapy.

Delivery of drugs for treating sclerosis to endothelial cells can be achieved by electroporation (electrochemotherapy), even for capillary malformations. A congenital, rapidly growing combined lymphangioma of the left cervicofacial region was treated with one session of bleomycin-based electrochemotherapy. Seven months after treatment, the growth-corrected target volume decrease was 63% and the dislocation of the trachea and blood vessels previously observed had ceased. It is suggested that bleomycin-based electrochemotherapy is a feasible alternative treatment option for capillary malformations.

Source: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2020/11/21/peds.2020-0566?rss=1
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