Nutcracker syndrome presenting as recurrent hematuria
Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) occurs from compression of the left renal vein between the abdominal aorta and the superior mesenteric artery. It is rare and commonly presents with hematuria, flank pain, and dysuria.

Published in the West African Journal of Radiology, the authors present a case of a 27-year-old male with sickle cell trait who presented with a 9-month history of total hematuria complicated with anemia necessitating blood transfusion. He had no overt signs of urogenital infestation, renal impairment, or trauma. Genotype was AS.

Intravenous urography was normal. On cystoscopy, the bleeding was seen to be coming through the left ureteral orifice. Renal angiography showed left renal venous stasis and contrast extravasation into the upper calyces. An impression of NCS was made. Other imaging modalities (computed tomography and ultrasound) supported NCS.

The authors conclude that NCS should be suspected in cases of recurrent hematuria.

Read in detail about the case here: